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Christopher Long
Christopher Long

Introduction To Research Methods: A Practical G... Free


Following visible successes on a wide range of predictive tasks, machine learning techniques are attracting substantial interest from medical researchers and clinicians. We address the need for capacity development in this area by providing a conceptual introduction to machine learning alongside a practical guide to developing and evaluating predictive algorithms using freely-available open source software and public domain data.




Introduction to Research Methods: A Practical G...


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Machine learning will also play a fundamental role in the development of learning healthcare systems. Learning healthcare systems describe environments which align science, informatics, incentives, and culture for continuous improvement and innovation. In a practical sense, these systems; which could occur on any scale from small group practices to large national providers, will combine diverse data sources with complex ML algorithms. The result will be a continuous source of data-driven insights to optimise biomedical research, public health, and health care quality improvement [10].


The ultimate goal of this manuscript is to imbue clinicians and medical researchers with both a foundational understanding of what ML is, how it may be used, as well as the practical skills to develop, evaluate, and compare their own algorithms to solve prediction problems in medicine.


We provide a conceptual introduction alongside practical instructions using code written for the R Statistical Programming Environment, which may be easily modified and applied to other classification or regression tasks. This code will act as a framework upon which researchers can develop their own ML studies. The models presented here may be fitted to diverse types of data and are, with minor modifications, suitable for analysing text and images.


The illustrative 'grand round', 'case report' and 'case series' have a long tradition in clinical practice and research. Presenting detailed critiques, typically of one or more patients, aims to provide insights into aspects of the clinical case and, in doing so, illustrate broader lessons that may be learnt. In research, the conceptually-related case study approach can be used, for example, to describe in detail a patient's episode of care, explore professional attitudes to and experiences of a new policy initiative or service development or more generally to 'investigate contemporary phenomena within its real-life context'[1]. Based on our experiences of conducting a range of case studies, we reflect on when to consider using this approach, discuss the key steps involved and illustrate, with examples, some of the practical challenges of attaining an in-depth understanding of a 'case' as an integrated whole. In keeping with previously published work, we acknowledge the importance of theory to underpin the design, selection, conduct and interpretation of case studies[2]. In so doing, we make passing reference to the different epistemological approaches used in case study research by key theoreticians and methodologists in this field of enquiry.


For example, in our evaluation of the introduction of electronic health records in English hospitals (Table 3), we defined our cases as the NHS Trusts that were receiving the new technology[5]. Our focus was on how the technology was being implemented. However, if the primary research interest had been on the social and organisational dimensions of implementation, we might have defined our case differently as a grouping of healthcare professionals (e.g. doctors and/or nurses). The precise beginning and end of the case may however prove difficult to define. Pursuing this same example, when does the process of implementation and adoption of an electronic health record system really begin or end? Such judgements will inevitably be influenced by a range of factors, including the research question, theory of interest, the scope and richness of the gathered data and the resources available to the research team.


The Framework approach is a practical approach, comprising of five stages (familiarisation; identifying a thematic framework; indexing; charting; mapping and interpretation), to managing and analysing large datasets particularly if time is limited, as was the case in our study of recruitment of South Asians into asthma research (Table 1)[3, 24]. Theoretical frameworks may also play an important role in integrating different sources of data and examining emerging themes. For example, we drew on a socio-technical framework to help explain the connections between different elements - technology; people; and the organisational settings within which they worked - in our study of the introduction of electronic health record systems (Table 3)[5]. Our study of patient safety in undergraduate curricula drew on an evaluation-based approach to design and analysis, which emphasised the importance of the academic, organisational and practice contexts through which students learn (Table 4)[6].


This is a list of general references on qualitative research(and not related to any specific method). After a briefintroduction which suggests those works which are essentialreading for newcomers to the field, the list is organized intotwo parts: the first part lists some important citations relatedto the approach in other disciplines (including the sourcedisciplines), the second lists citations related to the approachin Information Systems. You can use the EditFind command in Netscape to look for aspecific citation.


The book is primarily targeted at graduate students, lecturers and researchers working on SES, and has been written in a style that is accessible to readers entering the field from a variety of different disciplinary backgrounds. Each chapter discusses the types of SES questions to which the particular methods are suited and the potential resources and skills required for their implementation, and provides practical examples of the application of the methods. In addition, the book contains a conceptual and practical introduction to SES research, a discussion of key gaps and frontiers in SES research methods, and a glossary of key terms in SES research. Contributions from 97 different authors, situated at SES research hubs in 16 countries around the world, including South Africa, Sweden, Germany and Australia, bring a wealth of expertise and experience to this book.


A step-by-step guide to conducting research in medicine, public health, and other health sciences. This clear, practical, and straightforward text demystifies the research process and empowers students (and other new investigators) to conduct their own original research projects. In five sections, Introduction to Health Research Methods describes the entire research process beginning with the identification of a research question and the selection of a study approach, proceeding through the collection and analysis of data and the preparation of a formal scientific report, and ending with academic and professional presentations and publishing.By breaking the research process down into manageable steps, Introduction to Health Research Methods communicates the excitement and importance of health research and encourages readers to make their own contribution to improving the health of individuals and communities through research.


Aligning theoretical framework, gathering articles, synthesizing gaps, articulating a clear methodology and data plan, and writing about the theoretical and practical implications of your research are part of our comprehensive dissertation editing services. 041b061a72


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